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Greed Triggers Fallacies

The objective in the research on fallacies was to find the inhibitors and antidotes to fallacies that hinder or avoid the evolution of adaptive systems and environments.

Fallacies are unconscious actions with apparent conscious outputs. For this reason, the discussion of fallacies is a taboo. People cannot accept being interpreted by others unless they demand it in a counseling environment.

This research demonstrated that greed, as a universally recognized “sin”, triggers fallacies and makes their discussion fully unacceptable. Greed legitimates shortcuts to appropriate “things”.

These shortcuts are in fact fallacies that are built sustained by the “fears” an individual has. These fallacies are triggered by greed and, in the case of teamwork, are motivated by the envy the apparent success of others’ greedy actions generates.

There are three types of greed that influence human behavior:

  1. The emotional greed
  2. The materialistic greed
  3. The intellectual greed

The purpose of emotional greed is to obtain love and recognition; the purpose of materialistic greed is to accumulate and the purpose of intellectual greed is to be right and recognized.

The purpose of greed is acted out by the exertion of power and sustained by manipulation to ensure the achievement of results.

“Greeders” tend to accuse others for their greedy actions while they deny their own greed.

This is the paradigmatic case of greedy intellectuals who accuse greedy businessmen/women for their greedy doings.

The discovery of the inhibitors and antidotes of fallacies provided the necessary tools to ensure professional work in adaptive environments.

Excerpt of the book “The Origin of Fallacies” by Peter Belohlavek

Unicist Executive Committee

NOTE: The Unicist Research Institute has been, since 1976, the pioneer in complexity science research where the Unicist Evolutionary Approach was developed. 


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Discovery of the Ontogenesis and Functionality of Human Fallacies

The research on fallacies began in 1985/86 based on those fallacies that had notorious negative social and institutional consequences. The research was developed at The Unicist Research Institute and was led by Peter Belohlavek.

The discovery of perception, reasoning and conceptual fallacies demanded almost 17 years (2003), which contributed to the research on the roots of fallacies and their ontogenesis that developed their conceptualization after hundreds of “fallacious” hypotheses, until their final validation in 2019.

The research showed that all fallacies have the same purpose, which is to maintain the comfort zone of an individual. As fallacies are non-conscious processes, the people involved are not aware that they are trying to maintain a comfort zone. This process can be detected after a fallacy has been installed and the consequences became evident.

This research began based on a set of fallacies that the researcher experienced in the 1980s. The main ones were:

  • The paradoxical effect brought about by a set of drugs related to birth control.
  • The cyclical behavior in the evolution of four developing countries.
  • The decision of a French automotive industry to unify assembly lines, not automated at that moment, for all its range of products, which led to a production debacle.
  • A dysfunctional universal solution made by the International Monetary Fund.
  • The systematic destruction or nullification of information on reality that contradicted the fallacies which were functional to cultures.

Actions in adaptive environments, which have open boundaries, establish a framework of complexity that requires having a strict method to avoid fallacious decisions. Participants need to have the necessary knowledge of the issues that are being managed in order to avoid fallacious decisions.

Developing solutions in these environments requires simultaneously a competitive approach to expand the boundaries of knowledge and a cooperative approach to ensure the adaptation process.

On the one hand, this competition is what expands the quality of the solutions and allows going towards a superior level of functionality. The competitive approach is natural for human beings who are working on the solution of problems or developing new solutions.

On the other hand, cooperation is necessary to ensure that the adaptive process remains functional. This cooperation requires that the participants need to be internally complemented in order to be able to emulate a complementary cooperation in mind.

The generation of fallacies in adaptive processes is based on three core aspects:

Fallacy Avoidance
  1. The lack of the necessary understanding of the functionality of what is being done (knowledge).
  2. The functional requirement of a superior level of ethical intelligence than the one the participants of a process have.
  3. The lack of complementation of the logical type of thought, the conceptual intelligence and the strategic intelligence.

The definition of what is possible to be achieved is the first step to avoid fallacies. It makes fears unnecessary and guides the action processes.

The universal inhibitor of fallacy-building is the use of unicist conceptual engineering that integrates the fundamentals of “things” with the necessary technical knowledge to ensure the functionality of solutions.

The universal antidote for fallacies in the development of solutions in adaptive environments is the use of unicist destructive pilot tests to evaluate solutions.

Excerpt of the book “The Origin of Fallacies” by Peter Belohlavek

Unicist Executive Committee

NOTE: The Unicist Research Institute has been, since 1976, the pioneer in complexity science research where the Unicist Evolutionary Approach was developed. 

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Ethical Intelligence in Business

Ethical intelligence defines the true intentions of individuals and establishes the framework and limits of their efficacy. It is the intelligence that structures stable and dynamic rules that determine the action of individuals in their environment. The research on ethical intelligence was led by Peter Belohlavek at The Unicist Research Institute. Ethical intelligence determines the capacity of individuals to add value, their influence on the environment and on others and their time management.

The Unicist Ontology of Ethical Intelligence

On the one hand, the rules are stable since they respond to a purpose that is defined by the level of ethics within which the individual acts.

On the other hand, the rules are dynamic, because despite the fact that individuals are at a certain level, they are capable of determining alternative strategies that satisfy the objective they are seeking within that level.

Ethics is defined as a set of rules that are functional to a situation and to a certain perception of an accepted moral, and are supported by a complementary ideology.

Five levels of ethics have been found that sustain the behavior of the individuals:

  • Ethics of survival
  • Ethics of the earned value
  • Ethics of added value
  • Ethics of foundations
  • Conceptual ethics

The higher the level of ethical intelligence, the higher the level of consciousness an individual needs to have.

Functionality of Ethical Intelligence

The Levels of Ethical Intelligence are Inclusive: the Following includes the Precedents

LEVEL OF ETHICS:1) Survivors Ethics2) Earned Value Ethics3) Added Value Ethics4) Foundations Ethics5) Conceptual Ethics  
APPLICATIONS:
Strategic PlanningReactive approachTactical approachGrowth strategiesExpansive strategiesTimeless strategies
Added Value GenerationTransferring cost and risks to othersMaximization of benefitsGeneration of added valueGeneration of structured valueDynamic value generation
Influential PowerSurvivors pactInfluence on survivorsInfluence within specific limitsInfluence in the
restricted context
Influence in the wide context
FocusingOn risk-avoidanceOn cost-avoidanceOn value generationOn the systemOn the environment
Time ManagementHere and nowShort-term planningMedium-term planningLong-term planningEvolutionary planning
Language MaskAnalogicalOperationalFactualAmbiguousFigurative

Therefore the evolution of individuals’ ethical intelligence implies the increase of maturity which is based on higher levels of consciousness.

Ethical intelligence is the unique intelligence that has a structural evolution or involution process based on the maturity of individuals.

The exception is the stagnant survivors ethics which is the case of individuals who have built a parallel reality to stay.

Ethics of Survival

The ethics of survival is the type of ethics prevailing within the marginal areas of a culture or the marginal cultures.

Individuals that act according to this type of ethics exercises influence upon others who are in the same situation, based on survivor-pacts. Their time management is based on “the moment”, sustained by reactions based on intuition. They have a reactive tactical approach to reality. They focus on surviving and avoiding risks.

The Ethics of the Earned Value

This type of ethics seeks to add the minimal value possible to generate an earned value and to minimize costs in order to assure the subsistence level.

They are able to manage short-term problems. Short-term is the lapse between adding value and generating the corresponding earned value. They have a tactical active approach to reality. They focus on maximizing their benefits.

The Ethics of Added Value

This is the type of ethics that maximizes the added value to the environment seeking to optimize the relationship between added value and cost.

Such individuals manage the medium-term, which is the time to transform knowledge into added value. They develop medium-term strategies. They focus on the value they are adding.

The Ethics of Foundation

The ethics of foundation is used by individuals that consider that added value is secured by knowledge.

Such individuals manage the long-term, which is the time span between discovering a concept and transforming it into useful knowledge. They develop long-term strategies. They focus on the knowledge they are acquiring.

The Conceptual Ethics

This is the intelligence used to maximize the added value by using a high level of energy to materialize the need to give.

Individuals behaving according to this type of ethics exert influence on the entire environment because of their energy. They manage universal time that is the time of the cycles, with no time limitations.

They do not take into account their own existence. They develop strategies using the available, possible and expected forces. They focus on achieving the truth.

The Stagnant Survivors Ethics

Stagnant Survivors are individuals with a complex driven behavior that sustains the parallel reality they live in and the responsibility avoidance they need to exert to be in a comfort zone.The paradox is that their comfort zone is a conflict zone for those who surround them.

The stagnated status is based on a fallacious utopia that justifies their actions and forces them to exert power while they appropriate the value they need to feel comfortable. The justifications are built upon fallacies to sustain their actions, beliefs and needs.

Business Functionality of Ethical Intelligence

The discovery of ethical intelligence opened new possibilities to influence individuals’ evolution. Ethical intelligence in business defines the value adding possibilities, the influence on the environment, time management, strategic planning and focusing.

The apparent paradox is that it is the deepest intelligence of the human mind, but at the same time it is the intelligence that evolves with the maturity of individuals and can be influenced.

It has to be considered that in the business world different activities require different ethical approaches in order to be successful. For example:

A business is consistent when the individuals dealing with it have the ethics required by the activity.

When the ethics is inferior to what is needed, it necessarily inhibits growth installing a “business growth virus” in the organization.

If the ethics used by individuals is superior to what is needed, they install a “business profit virus” in the organization that increases costs and affects profitability.

Ethics is implicit in everyday actions, including language. Therefore, it can be defined, measured and fostered.

The rational knowledge of ethical intelligence has an enormous benefit for individuals in organizations in order to ensure consistency for growth and profitability.

Personal Efficacy and Ethical Intelligence

Efficacy is the capacity of individuals to produce results in a responsible way. This implies that efficacy requires awareness of what one is doing. That is why we do not talk of efficacy when evaluating individual art. The fundamentals of efficacy can by defined as:

  • The identification with the role: Efficacy requires that individuals are identified with the role they are fulfilling when they work. The role can be defined as the social identity of the individual.
  • The identification with the task: Efficacy requires having the necessary competencies to develop a task that allows enjoying the work.
  • Knowledge: Knowledge implies having the functional “knowledge objects” to do the work stored in the long term memory.

The efficacy of individuals can be calculated using the mathematics of the Unicist Logic:

Unicist Efficacy = I(R) * I(T) * K

Individuals need to assume the responsibility of working in the field of their efficacy which defines the limits of the possibilities for assuming responsibilities to produce results.

Learn more: https://www.unicist.org/conceptual-thinking/the-roots-of-intelligence/

Unicist Press Committee

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Unicist Double Dialectical Logic: A Universal Logic

The unicist double dialectical logic is the integrator of all logical reasoning patterns. It is homologous with the “category theory”, which is the mathematics that integrates the different mathematics by using a superior level of abstraction.

The Unicist Double Dialectical Logic is an emulation of the Ontogenetic Intelligence of Nature discovered by Peter Belohlavek. It emulates the intelligence and organization of nature and allows understanding the root causes and the unified field of processes, evolution and behavior.

This logic, which is based on human ontointelligence, allows dealing with the dynamics, evolution and nature of adaptive systems and environments. Non-adaptive environments are considered a “particular case” of adaptive systems.

Logic can be defined as the formalization of a fallacy-free reasoning process to solve specific categories of problems. There are as many logical reasoning patterns as there are different categories of problems that have been solved using a conscious reasoning process.

Ontointelligence is the human intelligence that allows discovering the concepts and fundamentals of things. It is integrated by an ethical intelligence, a strategic intelligence and the logical type of thought that allow managing a high level of abstraction and simultaneously a high level of concretion.

There are multiple logical patterns available to solve their homologous problems.

They can be classified based on the following categories: Propositional-logic approaches, Dualistic-logic approaches, Set-logic approaches, Fuzzy-logic approaches, Predicate-logic approaches and Integrative-logic approaches. The unicist double dialectical logic approach integrates them to deal with the dynamics, evolution and nature of adaptive systems and environments.

Triadic Functionality of Intelligence

The unicist double dialectical logic was created by Peter Belohlavek in 1986. Its application allowed its author to develop the structure of complexity sciences to study and deal with adaptive systems and environments.

It drove to the development of the unicist theory and to the discovery of the ontogenesis of evolution and established the basics to develop the unicist artificial intelligence. This logic provided the structure to develop the applied researches on social, individual and business evolution developed at The Unicist Research Institute.

Paradoxically, this unicist double dialectical logic requires both a superior level of abstraction to apprehend its structure and a superior level of operational thinking to apprehend the operation.

The use of the conclusions of this logical approach requires no abstractions, because they are self-evident. It only requires having experience in a specific action field.

Unicist Press Committee

NOTE: The Unicist Research Institute has been, since 1976, the pioneer in complexity science research where the Unicist Evolutionary Approach was developed. 

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Human Intelligence: The Nature of Adaptive Systems for Work

Businesses are typical adaptive systems. We use the word “business” as a synonym of “work”. Businesses need to adapt to the environment in order to achieve the permanence of their transcendent goals and the personal goals of their participants.

Adaptive systems for work are entities that interact with the environment having the characteristics of a complex system but with an implicit and explicit duty to produce a predefined result.

Work is an environment that generates the need of adaptive systems in order to produce results and administrative systems to use and control the methods used.

The maximal strategy implies achieving or overcoming the planned results using procedures with the necessary flexibility and controlling them based on the feedback of the market.

The minimum strategyis based on using strict methods that use rigid procedures and intrinsiccontrol systems based on accepted standards.

Unicist Press Committee

NOTE: The Unicist Research Institute has been, since 1976, the pioneer in complexity science research to deal with adaptive entities and became a private global decentralized leading research organization in the field of adaptive systems and environments. It was one of the precursors of the Industry 4.0 concept

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The Mental Emulation Process

The final goal of an emulation process of a given reality is the definition of actions that ensure the achievement of results. We define reality as an external environment whose existence is given by a functionality within an adaptive system where the person who is emulating such reality is part of.

Mental Emulation Process

Human actions are driven by the concepts individuals have. Therefore, any action a person intends to do requires having the concepts of what will be done. This requires emulating in mind the functionality of the “external adaptive environment”, the functionality of the actions that are intended to be done and the integration of both aspects.

The purpose of an emulation is the construction of a mental model that has to be homologous, in functional terms, to the external reality that is being influenced.

It is necessary that the emulation process defines the idea of the concept that underlies actions. It needs to define the “what for” something needs to be done, the “how” it will be done and the “what” it is in itself.

An emulation includes the operational and unicist ontological aspects that allow building a model that represents the nature and operation of an action.

An emulation of a given reality to generate results requires having a previous knowledge of its functionality to be able to have an internal secure benchmark to begin with the emulation building process.

An external reality cannot be emulated if this knowledge does not exist. It has to be considered that the knowledge required is the knowledge of the category to which it belongs.

The mental emulation process includes the building of the mental model, defining its structural operational functionality and managing the underlying fundamentals.

It is necessary to recall that the fundamentals of a given reality define its genotype while the functional structure defines its phenotype. Both together allow emulating reality in a way where it is possible to define what can be achieved, how it can be achieved and how to make it happen.

The final purpose of a mental emulation is not the emulation itself but the achievement of structural solutions and operational results.

Peter Belohlavek

NOTE: The Unicist Research Institute has been, since 1976, the pioneer in complexity science research to deal with adaptive entities and became a private global decentralized leading research organization in the field of adaptive systems and environments. It was one of the precursors of the Industry 4.0 concept

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Integrating Abductive, Inductive and Deductive Reasoning

Unicist cognitive systems were developed to manage the root causes of processes, the root causes of their evolution and the root causes of the behavior of the participants. The unicist cognitive systems emulate processes to provide solutions using the unicist evolutionary approach. The unicist evolutionary approach is based on the discovery that human actions are driven by the concepts they have in their minds, which are triggered by the conceptual short-term memory (CSTM).

Unicist ReasoningThis approach manages the concepts and fundamentals of processes and is synthesized in the unicist strategy and the unicist conceptual management that emulate the intelligence, organization and evolution of nature to develop maximal strategies to grow and minimum strategies to ensure results.

It uses abductive, inductive and deductive reasoning to forecast, produce and ensure results. Abductive reasoning is used to access the concepts of things and define the possibilities of what can be achieved, inductive reasoning is used to develop destructive tests to confirm the limits of the validity of knowledge and deductive reasoning is used to develop validation tests and manage the operation.

The unicist artificial intelligence was developed to empower cognitive systems, integrating abductive, inductive and deductive reasoning to develop logical inferences based on the ontogenetic maps of the unified field of the concepts and fundamentals of adaptive functions while learning from the environment through pilot tests.

The unicist cognitive systems emulate processes in adaptive environments based on the definition of the unified field of their fundamentals to confirm what is possible to be achieved, how to make it happen and manage their evolution.

Peter Belohlavek

NOTE: The Unicist Research Institute was the pioneer in using the unicist logical approach in complexity science research and became a private global decentralized leading research organization in the field of human adaptive systems. It has an academic arm and a business arm.

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The Functionality of Languages in Business

The languages people use should not be depending on the person but on the subject and the environment an individual is dealing with. Languages provide the code to reason things in order to make adaptive decisions. It has to be clarified that human intelligence is the tool humans have to decide how to better adapt to a specific environment.

The research in the field of businesses drove to the definition of two different types of businesses: those that work as closed systems and those that work as open systems.

Businesses as closed systems

The businesses that work as closed systems have a fully controlled environment to deal with, and therefore there is no need of managing languages that deal with the ambiguity or the complexity of the environment.

The basic languages that are used in these types of organizations are the operational language and the analytical language that suffice to manage controlled environments. The operational language is for the activities that deal with operation and the analytical language is necessary to control processes.

Both aspects are sustained by mathematical language to manage efficiency and statistical language to manage the uncertain aspects of the business.

These organizations are effective when the four dominant languages are integrated, meaning that analytical works are sustained by mathematical support and operational works are sustained by statistical approaches to solve uncertainties.

Operation research, system dynamics are examples of the applications of these languages in these types of organizations.

Businesses as open (adaptive) systems

A system is adaptive when it is feedback dependent. Business that work as adaptive systems are integrated in the environment with requires managing ambiguous language to deal with the adaptive aspects, synthetic language to define and manage the concepts of the business functions, factual language to solve complex problems, diplomatic language to manage the conflicts with the environment and figurative language to ensure the consensus of decisions.

It has to be considered that the languages needed to manage businesses as adaptive systems include the operational, analytical, mathematical and statistical languages to ensure that the adaptive and non-adaptive aspects are managed.

The use of languages require that each business function is managed using the necessary language to “read” reality without perception fallacies to ensure the functionality of the decisions.

Unicist linguistics includes the use of the unicist standard language that is a metalanguage that allows integrating the use of languages to ensure the adaptability of the business processes and the assurance of results.

As the unicist standard language is a language integrator, it is dysfunctional for people who are “monolingual”.

Peter Belohlavek

NOTE: The Unicist Research Institute was the pioneer in using the unicist logical approach in complexity science research and became a private global decentralized leading research organization in the field of human adaptive systems. It has an academic arm and a business arm.

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Human Superiority Complex

Superiority complexes are based on superior functional intelligence implying a structural different attitude. Their feeling of superiority is transformed into a complex when they begin to use their superior functional intelligence in fields that cannot be managed with that approach. But their need of sustaining their superiority forces to try to do so. The result implies blaming the environment for the paradoxical outcomes.

While inferiority complex drive toward inaction in order to deny the reality that affects self-esteem, superiority complexes drive toward aggressive active action to destroy the bothering object.

Superiority complexes are implicit in the decisions taken by anti-intuition in a fearful environment using the anti-intelligence to destroy the object that is threatening the self-perception of superiority.

Extremely talented individuals develop this complex while they live immersed in a mediocre environment. Mediocre environment are those that not include respect and admiration to the members of the group that have the capacity to add higher value.

When the relation with authority doesn’t include respect and admiration talented individuals become marginal. “Nerds” are some of the names that degrade the talent of an individual and transform a factual superiority into a personal complex.

On the other hand, talented individuals who perceive that their skill has no social value develop an inferiority complex if they are socially rejected.

To avoid destruction they become aggressive to the environment. The aggression might be active when it their complex is not integrated with an inferiority complex or passive if they perceive inferiority when dealing with other fields than the one (or several) they are talented in.

Characteristics of the Superiority Complex

  1. It is based on a physical advantage
  2. It influences all the activities of an individual
  3. It creates a personal fictive environment to solve problems using over-simplifying analogical approaches based on their specific talent.
  4. It is future focused to avoid the responsibility of present actions
  5. It uses omnipotence as a driver to avoid the feeling of inferiority
  6. It produces a selfish, envious and greedy behavior
  7. It produces a dualistic, antagonistic, analogical approach to reality
  8. It looks for the solution exclusively in the future
  9. It produces an obsessive taking, not giving, attitude
  10. It produces the distortion of the perception of threatening aspect of reality

The main difference is given by the fact that Superiority Complex driven individuals toward an active role in the environment. Thus they use to be aggressive using both active aggression and/or passive resistance as a way to attack the environment.

They do not work in teams. They are “solopreneurs”.

Peter Belohlavek

NOTE: The Unicist Research Institute was the pioneer in using the unicist logical approach in complexity science research and became a private global decentralized leading research organization in the field of human adaptive systems. It has an academic arm and a business arm. https://www.unicist.org/turi.pdf

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Wisdom vs. Erudition: Wisdom is a pathway with many masters

There is an extreme confrontation of erudition with wisdom (but not vice versa). This was discovered in the research developed during more than 10 years in the field of Talent Development. The research was led by Peter Belohlavek.

Wisdom can be defined as the capacity of an individual to integrate idealism and realism with value adding actions. The characteristic of individuals who achieved wisdom is that they had multiple masters that had an authoritative role in their lives. These roles are still in force and the masters are still admired.

The Unicist Ontology of WisdomAdmiration and functional envy are the concepts that allow achieving wisdom. Individuals who admire others’ achievements and deeds have the opportunity to achieve wisdom, but only if they pursue the objective of adding value in an environment. The functional envy drives individuals to achieve goals.

Individuals with conflictive relations with authority can never achieve wisdom. They might be extremely erudite, extremely efficient workers but they will never be able to integrate idealism and realism with a value-adding attitude in their environment.

The apparent paradox of wisdom is the need of multiple masters. It is said that disciples are those learners who overcome their teachers. But wisdom, defined as the space where an individual has been able to integrate idealism and realism with value adding actions, cannot be overcome. What is the difference between Wisdom and Erudition?

Wisdom

Wisdom is a state that requires focusing on specific aspects of reality using questions to apprehend their nature and having the necessary knowledge of the environment in order to generate value.

Wisdom cannot be overcome because the nature of some aspect of reality has been understood and can be influenced.

But it has to be considered that wise people do not compete with others to have a place in the world. They earned their place in the world. That is why they remain masters in the field in which they are wise.

Erudition

The Unicist Ontology of EruditionErudition is an addiction that drives people to build a parallel hypothetical reality where they consider themselves wise. It is a frequent addiction of rationally gifted individuals.

They are driven by envy which makes them accumulate data they use to judge the originators of the data while they try to demonstrate to others that they are wise.

This allows them confronting with others in their hypothetical reality and feel that their judgments make them wise. They manipulate in order to ensure that their hypothetical reality prevails over actual facts.

Conclusions

Competing with an authority in a field where she/he is wise is a demonstration that the need to gain supersedes the need to add value. The existence of multiple masters make wisdom possible.

Erudition is not analogous to wisdom; it is fallacious version of wisdom. Wisdom implies action while erudition does not.

Achieving wisdom cannot be a goal for a wise person; wisdom is the consequence of the action of an individual but does not cause it. It is unwise to try to achieve wisdom.

That is why wisdom is a pathway with multiple masters. Masters are ordinary or extraordinary people who have achieved wisdom in some field. Look for them while you continue adding value.

To achieve wisdom you need to abandon your modesty and expand your humbleness.  Wise people do not need to be right, they just have to be functional.

Academic Committee

NOTE: The Unicist Research Institute was the pioneer in using the unicist logical approach in complexity science research and became a private global decentralized leading research organization in the field of human adaptive systems. It has an academic arm and a business arm.
https://www.unicist.org/conceptual-thinking/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/turi.pdf

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