Complexity Sciences

Proteins and Amino Acids: Discovery of the Unicist Ontology of Amino Acids

The Unicist Ontology of amino acids allows understanding its functionality and the possibilities of their integration to build proteins. Their purpose is given by the side chain which defines the different functions amino acids can fulfill.

Amino Acids

It has to be considered that the Unicist Ontology emulates the ontogenetic intelligence of nature that was discovered which defines that there is always a purpose, an active and entropic principle and an energy conservation principle. The unicist ontology of amino acids is a demonstration of how this intelligence works.

The active function of an amino acid is given by the carboxyl group that establishes a supplementary relationship with the R-group. The energy conservation function is given by the amino group, which establishes a complementary relationship with the R-group.

Amino acids are biologically organic compounds integrated by amine and carboxylic functional groups, driven by a side-chain specific to each amino acid. The key elements of an amino acid are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, though other elements are found in the side-chains of some amino acids.

Amino acids are the building blocks of peptides and proteins. They are composed of amine and carboxylic acid groups, separated by the alpha-carbon but the side chains on the alpha carbon vary with the acid. They are the subunits of proteins: amino acids make peptide chains, peptide chains make polypeptides, polypeptides make proteins.

Amino Acid StructureAmino acids are the structural units that build proteins. They join together to form short polymer chains called peptides or longer chains called either polypeptides or proteins. These polymers are linear and unbranched, with each amino acid within the chain attached to two neighboring amino acids.

Peptide Formation

Amides can be thought of as forming from the reaction of an amine and a carboxylic acid. In the same way, two amino acids can combine to form a dipeptide, held together by a peptide bond.


A fourth amino acid would form a tetrapeptide, a fifth would form a pentapeptide, and so on. Short chains are referred to as peptides, chains of up to about 50 amino acids are polypeptides, and chains of more than 50 amino acids are proteins. Amino acids in peptide chains are called amino acid residues.

Classification of Amino Acids

Acidic amino acids and their amides: aspartic acid, asparagine, glutamic acid, glutamine.

Basic amino acids: histidine, lysine, arginine.

Aromatic amino acids: phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan.

Sulfur containing amino acids: cysteine, methionine.

Imido acid: proline.

Hydrophobic side chains: glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine.

Hydroxylic amino acids: serine, threonine, (tyrosine).

Learn more about amino acids at:

Unicist Press Committee

NOTE: The Unicist Research Institute was the pioneer in using the unicist logical approach in complexity science research and became a private global decentralized leading research organization in the field of human adaptive systems. It has an academic arm and a business arm.

Adaptive clinical trials: An upgrade and energy saving methodology

The discovery of the unicist ontological structure of complex systems developed at The Unicist Research Institute provided the final input to develop a methodology for adaptive clinical trials. The unicist ontology of health that was discovered provided the basic background for this methodology:

Clinical TrialsThis approach is based on the integration of aspects of traditional clinical trials, the concept of the “learn and confirm” standard and the unicist approach to complexity sciences.

This approach is based on the use of destructive tests, which are a special kind of falsification test (Karl Popper), to sustain the Phase I and Phase II clinical trials.

The objective of destructive tests is to confirm the limits of the functionality that is being tested.

They are necessary in the previous research work but their application in these phases allows providing a safe input to develop the following phases. Destructive tests are based on universal experimenting and on the knowledge of the conceptual foundations of what is being researched.

Clinical TrialsPhase III and IV are approaches that use non destructive tests that are analogous to the traditional clinical trials but with the inclusion of a quality assurance process that triggers a “learning” process when predefined limits are exceeded.

The “learn & confirm” methodology introduced at Wyeth changed the paradigms of clinical trials and introduced a conceptual simplification in the R&D processes that could not expand massively because of the non-evident economic benefits of this technology.

The unicist approach to adaptive clinical trials is an approach based on the complexity science research methodology developed at The Unicist Research Institute that simplified the discovery-learn-confirm method introduced by Wyeth and provides a secure approach to life-sciences.

A research consortium, coordinated by Peter Belohlavek, is being organized to develop this solution in real application fields. It is expected that this methodology becomes a standard within the next two years based on the shortening of the R&D processes and the saving of up to 50% of the costs.

Learn more about “What are complexity sciences” at:

Unicist Press Committee

NOTE: The Unicist Research Institute was the pioneer in using the unicist logical approach in complexity science research and became a private global decentralized leading research organization in the field of human adaptive systems. It has an academic arm and a business arm.

The Unicist Double Dialectical Logic to deal with Complexity

Complexity in Businesses

It is necessary to define complexity in the field of business. It needs to be understood to develop and use adaptive systems:

Knowledge of Adaptive SystemsWhen you have to add 1 + 1 the problem is simple; 1 + 1 = 2. There is only one possible solution and all you have to do is follow a method.

But the problem becomes complex if you reverse the equation (2 = ???) because you need to produce a result. In this case there are infinite solutions and the problem is complex because you have to find the equation that optimizes the process of producing results. That is why using methods is simple but ensuring results is complex.

We define a complex system as an open system, which defines the functionality of a unified field through the conjunction of objects and/or subsystems.

Complexity Science Organizations

There are three main organizations in the world that are fully focused on complexity science and its application in the field of human complex adaptive systems.

We strongly recommend comparing their approaches to choose the one that is functional to your needs. We suggest beginning by accessing their institutional page to apprehend the concept of adaptiveness they manage:

Santa Fe Institute – Empirical approaches

New England Complex Systems Institute – Empirical approaches

The Unicist Research Institute – A unicist logical approach (based on a pragmatic, structuralist and functionalist framework)

Dealing with Businesses as Complex Adaptive Systems

Businesses are typical adaptive systems. Businesses need to adapt to the environment in order to achieve their goals.

The Unicist Logical Approach allows emulating the dynamics of a business in mind that allows managing it as an adaptive system. Thus this approach permits defining reliable scenarios, develop diagnoses, build strategies and design business architectures.

The more adaptive a system is, the less energy it consumes to generate a predefined value. Adaptive systems require using predictors to deal with the adaptive aspects of the reality that is being managed. This requires using a unicist logical approach to define the rules that regulate adaptiveness and allow designing the architecture of the system.

Designing adaptive systems implies dealing with the complexity of such systems and developing operational solutions that can be managed by everyone to expand businesses and save energy. Complexity science can be defined as the scientific approach to complex adaptive systems.

The Unicist Logical Approach to Complexity Sciences

Learn about the Unicist Logical Approach at:

The unicist logical approach manages the adaptive aspects of business as unified fields based on the knowledge of their ontogenetic maps.

The knowledge of the ontogenetic map of a business, its market and the context allowed managing the fundamentals that define the possibilities of business actions.

The future scenario building became possible based on the knowledge of the ontology of evolution and the ontogenetic maps of a business and its restricted and wide contexts.

This knowledge allowed defining synergic maximal strategies, to expand beyond the boundaries of a business, and minimum strategies to work within them.

Adaptive business processes became reliable based on the use of ontology based business objects. The use of objects upgraded the role of human work in business.

The integration of fundamental analysis and technical analysis allowed building reliable business knowledge, transforming uncertainty into risk and integrating the knowledge of the possibilities of success with its probabilities.

All the solutions, business objects, technologies and knowledge provided by The Unicist Research Institute are based on the unicist logical approach and generate significant energy saving effects.

Steps to Manage Businesses as Adaptive Systems:

  1. Forecast the future of the adaptive system that is being influenced.
  2. Diagnose adaptive systems to define the possibilities of what can be achieved and how to do it.
  3. Develop the necessary strategies that allow developing both maximal strategies to expand the boundaries of the system and minimum strategies to ensure survival.
  4. Design the architecture of the solution in order to obtain the results that are necessary and possible to be achieved.

This requires having a conceptual approach to apprehend the unified field of the business and being able to transform adaptive aspects into operational solutions.

The Unicist Healthcare Confederation is now expanding worldwide providing unicist object driven technologies to deal with the adaptive aspects of businesses.

Peter Belohlavek

NOTE: The Unicist Research Institute was the pioneer in complexity science research and became a private global decentralized leading research organization in the field of human adaptive systems.