Proteins and Amino Acids: Discovery of the Unicist Ontology of Amino Acids


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The Unicist Ontology of amino acids allows understanding its functionality and the possibilities of their integration to build proteins. Their purpose is given by the side chain which defines the different functions amino acids can fulfill.

Amino Acids

It has to be considered that the Unicist Ontology emulates the ontogenetic intelligence of nature that was discovered which defines that there is always a purpose, an active and entropic principle and an energy conservation principle. The unicist ontology of amino acids is a demonstration of how this intelligence works.

The active function of an amino acid is given by the carboxyl group that establishes a supplementary relationship with the R-group. The energy conservation function is given by the amino group, which establishes a complementary relationship with the R-group.

Amino acids are biologically organic compounds integrated by amine and carboxylic functional groups, driven by a side-chain specific to each amino acid. The key elements of an amino acid are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, though other elements are found in the side-chains of some amino acids.

Amino acids are the building blocks of peptides and proteins. They are composed of amine and carboxylic acid groups, separated by the alpha-carbon but the side chains on the alpha carbon vary with the acid. They are the subunits of proteins: amino acids make peptide chains, peptide chains make polypeptides, polypeptides make proteins.

Amino Acid StructureAmino acids are the structural units that build proteins. They join together to form short polymer chains called peptides or longer chains called either polypeptides or proteins. These polymers are linear and unbranched, with each amino acid within the chain attached to two neighboring amino acids.

Peptide Formation

Amides can be thought of as forming from the reaction of an amine and a carboxylic acid. In the same way, two amino acids can combine to form a dipeptide, held together by a peptide bond.

Peptides

A fourth amino acid would form a tetrapeptide, a fifth would form a pentapeptide, and so on. Short chains are referred to as peptides, chains of up to about 50 amino acids are polypeptides, and chains of more than 50 amino acids are proteins. Amino acids in peptide chains are called amino acid residues.

Classification of Amino Acids

Acidic amino acids and their amides: aspartic acid, asparagine, glutamic acid, glutamine.

Basic amino acids: histidine, lysine, arginine.

Aromatic amino acids: phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan.

Sulfur containing amino acids: cysteine, methionine.

Imido acid: proline.

Hydrophobic side chains: glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine.

Hydroxylic amino acids: serine, threonine, (tyrosine).

Learn more about amino acids at: http://www.biology.arizona.edu/biochemistry/problem_sets/aa/aa.html

Unicist Press Committee

NOTE: The Unicist Research Institute was the pioneer in using the unicist logical approach in complexity science research and became a private global decentralized leading research organization in the field of human adaptive systems. It has an academic arm and a business arm.
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